Research-based management of Gulf of Guinea
Coastal marine ecosystems worldwide are threatened by multiple human-induced stressors, ranging from global stressors to local pollution, habitat loss and over-exploitation of resources, and resulting in fast degradation of coastal ecosystems and the services that they provide. Gulf of Guinea large marine ecosystem is a hotspot of multiple stressors. The maritime threats to GGLME include oil, heavy metals and litter from shipping and off-shore oil exploration, which - together with land-based pollution and climate change - can result in unknown synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects to the marine biota, with unknown detrimental effects on the marine ecosystem. Ghana’s government is giving priority to prevention of pollution of the marine environment, consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals and the regulations from International Maritime Organisation. However, lack of regulatory capacity and data on maritime and marine pollution for research-based management result in challenges in implementation and enforcement of the regulations.